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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2015, 7(4), 218-228; doi: 10.5099/aj150400218
Received: 01 July 2015; | Revised: 23 November 2015; | Accepted: 02 December 2015


In Vitro Transformation of Sol-gel Derived Bioactive Glass from Sand


Luqman A. Adams1* and Enobong R. Essien2

1 Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

Luqman A. Adams

Department of Chemistry

University of Lagos


Email: ladams@unilag.edu.ng.



A Bioactive glass in the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 was prepared from sand as precursor in place of alkoxysilanes such as tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS). Sodium metasilicate extracted from the sand was processed to a gel via the sol-gel technique. The gel, after aging was dried at lower temperatures before sintering at 950 oC for 3 h to form Na2Ca2Si3O9 crystals for enhanced mechanical property. The glass monolith was then subjected to standard in vitro bioactivity study in simulated body fluid (SBF) over 0-21 days. Characterization of the samples before and after immersion in SBF were performed using mechanical tester, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to evaluate compression strength, morphology, composition, diffraction patterns and chemical bonding respectively. The compression strength of the glass was 1.77 Mpa. The major crystalline phase was Na2Ca2Si3O9 which, however, transformed to an amorphous phase in SBF while forming hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA). The material may be a useful candidate in the regeneration of trabecular bones.

Keywords: Silica source; Na2Ca2Si3O9; Compression strength; Trabecular bone; Hydroxycarbonate apatite.

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