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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2016, 8(1), 56-67; doi: 10.5099/aj160100056
Received: 22 February 2016; | Revised: 10 March 2016; | Accepted: 15 March 2016


Cytology Analysis of Urine among Cigarette Smokers


Ajileye Ayodeji Blessing 1*, Eze Gerald Ikechi 2, Fasogbon Samuel Ayobami 3

1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo State.

2Department of Anatomy, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State.

3Public Health In-vitro Diagnostic Control Laboratory, Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author

Ajileye Ayodeji Blessing

Department of Basic Medical Sciences

Achievers University

PMB 1030, Owo

Ondo State, Nigeria

E-mail: ayobless05@gmail.com



Introduction: This is a descriptive study carried out in Owo Town, Ondo State, during the period of February (2015) to August (2015).

Aim: The main purpose of carrying out this research work is to evaluate the cytomorphological features of urine smears (using papanicoulaou stain) among cigarette smokers in Owo town, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Materials and Method: 250 subjects were used for this research work, 200 subjects were cigarette smokers while 50 subjects were non- cigarette smokers. The numbers of years of cigarette smoking were different and the numbers of cigarette sticks smoked per day were also variable among the test group. Individuals with urinary tract infection were not included in this research work and individuals with less than five (5) years of cigarette smoking were also not included in this research work. From each urine sample collected, smears were obtained from the sediments after centrifuging and were immediately fixed with a cytology-spray fixative for at least 30 minutes, before staining smears with Papanicolaou stain.

Results and Discussion: The stained smears were examined under a light microscope and revealed a high cellular turnover among 70% of the test group when compared with the control group which are non-smokers, showing few normal urothelia cells. Enlargement in nuclear cytoplasm ratio, irregular nuclear borders, necrosis, cluster of cells showing dysplastic changes, moderate haemorrhage, heavy infiltrates of inflammatory cells, hyperchromatism, pleomorphysms and neoplastic transformation were among the features observed in smears of the test group.

Conclusion: On the basis of this research work, cigarette smoking has been seen to be one of the leading causes of renal diseases.

Keywords: Cytomorphological, cigarettes, papanicolaou, pleomorphysm.

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