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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2021,13(3),118-125;doi:10.5099/aj210300118
Received:23 June 2021; | Revised:14 July 2021; | Accepted:08 September 2021


Effect of Revive Capsule on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Male Albino Rats in Relation to the Duration of Administration


Onengiyeofori Ibama1*, Edna O. Nwachuku2, Obipiseibima P. Aggokabo-Fatchu3, Joel Burabari Konne4, Ethel Oroma Konne5, Felix Eedee Konne2, Linus S. Owhondah6, Linda Sornka Doneh7

1 Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Science, College of Medical Sciences, Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Sciences, Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

3 Department of Cardiac Physiology, School of Sports and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moore’s University

4 School of Medicine, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv Ukraine

5 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Medical Entomology, Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

6 Biosystems Medical Diagnostics, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

7 Department of Medical Microbiology, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH), Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

Onengiyeofori Ibama

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Science

College of Medical Sciences

Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt


Email: onengs4u@yahoo.com

Phone number: +2348063579481



Revive capsule is a polyherbal formulation commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction or enhance libido in men. This drug has similar mechanism of action with phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. However, there have been speculations about the relationship between PDE5 inhibitors and cardiovascular disease, hence the need for this study, which was aimed at evaluating the effects of Revive capsule on cardiovascular risk indices in male albino rats in relation to the duration of administration. A total of 42 male albino rats were used for the study, and were divided into six (6) groups of seven (7) rats each. They were allowed to acclimatize for two (2) weeks by maintaining 12-hour light and dark cycles daily, with access to standard feed and water ad libitum. Group I (Negative Control group) was administered with distilled water once daily, while groups II, III, IV, V and VI were treated with Revive capsule at a dosage of 72mg/kg once daily for 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. The rat dose administered was extrapolated from the human dose using the formula by Paget and Barnes. At the end of each treatment week, the rats were allowed to fast overnight, followed by their anaesthetization using chloroform, and blood sample collection via jugular vein puncture. Also, the heart was excised and examined histologically. Fasting lipid profile total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein was analyzed using Randox test kits with enzymatic method; the low density lipoprotein was calculated using Friedewald’s equation; then, the cardiovascular (atherogenic) risk indices were calculated using the various lipid parameters. The results showed a significant increase (p <0.05) in serum high density lipoprotein level, and a decrease in serum low density lipoprotein level and cardiovascular risk indices (atherogenic index of plasma, castelli’s risk index-I, castelli’s risk index-II and atherogenic coefficient) in the treatment groups, with the maximum effect attained after 6 weeks of treatment. Also, photomicrographs of histologically examined cardiac muscle of the treatment groups appeared indifferent from that of the negative control. These findings may suggest that treatment with Revive capsule at the appropriate dosage for 6 weeks did not pose any cardiovascular risk or cardiotoxicty, but may rather be helpful in the amelioration of cardiovascular diseases in a rat model.


Keywords:Revive, Cardiovascular, Atherogenic, Cardiac, Histological, Administration


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